library("vegawidget")

The purpose of this article is to show how you can use Shiny to extend Vega’s capabilities. In these examples, we use the vega-view API to interact with a Vega chart using Shiny We explore similar ideas in an article on extending using JavaScript.

Because this article is an HTML document (as opposed to a Shiny app), we cannot show the app directly in this document. However, this package offers a function vw_shiny_demo() that, when called without arguments, lists all of the demonstration apps included with this package; to run a particular app, simply use its name as the argument:

vw_shiny_demo("data-set")

Once a Vega chart is built, there are three things you can access through Shiny:

• events: using vw_shiny_get_event()
• signals: using vw_shiny_get_signal() and vw_shiny_set_signal()
• data: using vw_shiny_set_data()

As we go through the examples, please keep in mind:

• the vw_shiny_get_*() functions return reactive expressions.
• the vw_shiny_set_*() functions act as Shiny observers.

Getting events

This is a shortened version of the events section in the JavaScript article; the concepts are the same, but the implementation is far simpler using Shiny.

Event streams are used extensively within Vega, enabling interactivity. By adding event-listeners to the view, we can specify actions to be taken in response to a particular type of event, such as "mouseover", "click", "keypress", etc.

The Shiny demo for events features a scatterplot. When a mark on the chart is clicked, it returns to Shiny the data observation (datum) associated with that mark.

You can see this in action by running:

vw_shiny_demo("event-get")

The operative function in the server() function is vw_shiny_get_event():

# the event returns the backing-data as a list
rct_list_click <-
vw_shiny_get_event("chart", event = "click", body_value = "datum")

The function is called with three arguments:

• outputId, the scatterplot has the outputId "chart"
• event, we want to respond to "click" events on the scatterplot
• body_value, please see the following text…

The vega-view API requires that you supply a handler-function when you add an event listener. Inconveniently for R users, this handler-function has to be JavaScript. This package does a few things to make working with JavaScript handlers a little easier.

An event-handler function is expected to have two arguments, event instance and the scenegraph item. Because all possible event-handlers will have the same arguments, we need specify only the body of the function in vw_shiny_get_event().

Instead of specifying the entire body of a JavaScript function, this package provides a library of bodies of (what we think are) commonly-used handler functions. To see the available event-handlers, call vw_handler_event() without arguments:

vw_handler_event()
## arguments: event, item
##
##   body_value: item
##
##     // returns the item
##     return item;
##
##   body_value: datum
##
##     // if there is no item or no datum, return null
##     if (item === null || item === undefined || item.datum === undefined) {
##       return null;
##     }
##
##     // returns the datum behind the mark associated with the event
##     return item.datum;

We wish to return the data-observation behind the mark associated with the event, so we can specify to use "datum" handler. The vw_shiny_get_event() function knows to check the library first, so you can either supply the entire body of a JavaScript handler-function, or you can supply the name of a handler-function in the library.

As such, the following calls are equivalent:

# name of a body in the event-handler library
vw_shiny_get_event(..., body_value = "item")

# body of a JavaScript function
vw_shiny_get_event(..., body_value = "return item;") 

Similarly for vw_shiny_get_event(), these

The code supplied for body_value need only return a value - the vw_shiny_get_event() function will take care of composing this with additional code that will make that value available to Shiny.

Finally, the vw_shiny_get_event() function returns a reactive expression that evaluates to the latest value returned from the event-handler.

To see the same logic implemented in pure JavaScript, see the events demo of the JavaScript article.

Setting and getting signals

As with the events section, this is a shortened version of the signals section in the JavaScript article.

Signals are a formal part of the Vega specification, but not officially a part of the Vega-Lite specification. They are “dynamic variables that parameterize a visualization and can drive interactive behaviors. Signals can be used throughout a Vega specification, for example to define a mark property or data transform parameter.”

Even though signals are not defined in Vega-Lite, this does not mean that we cannot use them. Before being rendered, Vega-Lite specifications are compiled into Vega specifications. Once rendered, we can interact with the Vega signals, as long as we know what they are named.

For example, signals are used to drive the behavior of Vega-Lite selections. As of the start of 2019, the Vega-Lite development team are discussing if, and how, signals might be introduced to Vega-Lite.

One way we can “hack” our way to a signal is to use the signal the Vega-Lite specification, then define the signal by patching the compiled Vega specification. Vega-Lite developer Dominik Moritz demonstrates this technique in an Observable notebook.

Here, we will use the same technique to create an interactive histogram. As you know, whenever you create a histogram it is a good idea to experiment with different bin-widths, to give yourself a chance to see all of the interesting structure in the data. We will use the data_seattle_hourly dataset, included with this package, to look at the distribution of temperatures in Seattle in 2010.

You can see this in action by running:

vw_shiny_demo("signal-set-get")

Using the display mode of the app you can see the R code used to build it. In the Vega-Lite spec, in the x encoding, we have defined the bin step as a signal named "bin_width". This is not legal in Vega-Lite. To make this work, we have to patch the compiled Vega spec with a definition of the signal. We can include the patch as an option to vega_embed().

You also see in the code that we transform the value returned by the input, which varies between -1 and 1, to the bin-width which varies between 0.1 °F and 10.0 °F.

To set the value of the signal in the Vega chart, we call the function vw_shiny_set_signal(). In the context of this app:

# this sets the bin-width signal in the chart
vw_shiny_set_signal("chart", name = "bin_width", value = rct_bin_width_in())
• outputId, the histogram has the outputId "chart"
• name, the Vega signal we want to set has the name "bin_width"
• value, we want to set the Vega signal to this value

Note that we are supplying a reactive expression to the value argument. Internally, vw_shiny_set_signal() observes this value, then changes the signal in the Vega chart in response to changes in value. Accordingly, you should think of vw_shiny_set_signal() as equivalent to the shiny::observeEvent() function.

Getting the value of the signal in a Vega chart is very similar to getting the information from an event, as described above.

The operative function in the server() function is vw_shiny_get_signal(). Here it is in the context of the app:

# the signal returns the bin-width from the chart
rct_bin_width_out <-
vw_shiny_get_signal("chart", name = "bin_width", body_value = "value")

The function is called with three arguments:

• outputId, the scatterplot has the outputId "chart"
• name, we want to access the signal named "bin_width"
• body_value, like with the events, this is a little-bit involved…

To get a signal from Vega we add a signal listener. This includes a signal-handler, a JavaScript function that Vega runs whenever the value of the signal changes. This is very similar to an event-handler.

For a signal-handler, the arguments are the name of the signal and the value of the signal. To make things simpler, the vw_shiny_get_signal() function asks for the body of a (JavaScript) function that returns the value that you want sent back to Shiny. You need only worry about returning a value, vw_shiny_get_signal() takes care of sending the value back to Shiny.

To make things even simpler, body_value can also be the name of a signal-handler in this package’s handler-library. You can see all the available signal-handlers by calling vw_handler_signal() without arguments.

Finally, the vw_shiny_get_signal() function returns a reactive expression that evaluates to the latest value returned from the signal-handler.

To see the same logic implemented in pure JavaScript, see the signals demo of the JavaScript article.

Setting (and soon getting) data

As with events and signals, you can change datasets in a Vega chart. In a future version of this package, you will also be able to retrieve datasets from a Vega chart.

Again, we will follow the example used in the data section of the JavaScript article. Let’s consider an example with a dataset that has a single observation, a point constrained to the unit-circle. We use a Shiny input to change then angle of the observation.

To run the demonstration:

vw_shiny_demo("data-set")

To be able to access a dataset in Vega(-Lite), it has to be named in the specification. For more information on naming datasets, please see the Vega and Vega-Lite documentation on datasets.

In our server() function, we have a reactive expression, rct_data(), which takes the value of the slider-input and transforms it into a data frame containing a set of coordinates on the unit-circle.

To change the data in the Vega chart, we call the function vw_shiny_set_data(). In the context of this app:

# whenever rct_data() changes, the chart will be updated
vw_shiny_set_data("chart", name = "source", value = rct_data())
• outputId, the chart has the outputId "chart"
• name, the Vega dataset we want to change has the name "source"
• value, we want to set the Vega dataset to this value

Note that we are supplying a reactive expression to the value argument. Internally, vw_shiny_set_data() observes this value, then changes the dataset in the Vega chart in response to changes in value. Accordingly, you should think of vw_shiny_set_data() as equivalent to the shiny::observeEvent() function.

To see the same logic implemented in pure JavaScript, see the data demo of the JavaScript article.